Evoked potentials in neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disroders


Authors: G. Timárová 1;  P. Havránková 2;  I. Menkyová 1,2
Authors‘ workplace: II. neurologická klinika LF UK a UN, Bratislava, Slovensko 1;  Neurologická klinika a Centrum, klinických neurověd, 1. LF UK a VFN v Praze, Česká republika 2
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2020; 83/116(supplementum 1): 44-50
doi: 10.14735/amcsnn2020S44

Overview

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) have been recognized in the last 15 years according to its clinical and laboratory findings, MRI and anti-aquaporin-4-IgG antibodies discovery, as a separate nosological entity, different from multiple sclerosis. Electrophysiological examination including evoked potentials (EPs) is not a part of formal NMO/NMOSD criteria. In the past ten years, multiple studies appeared, analyzing the contribution of EPs in the diagnostics, disease monitoring, and prognosis in NMO/NMOSD. The actual survey focuses on the most important one. Most of the studies, though retrospective and cross-sectional, show that the findings are more homogenous in the Aphro-American and Asian population than in the Caucasian one. The most often seen abnormality was the absence of EPs, amplitude reduction of VEP in optic neuritis, and MEP and/or SEP in longitudinal extension transverse myelitis. These findings reflect more severe axonal loss than demyelination in NMO/NMOSD. In the Caucasian population, the findings in EPs might be more heterogeneous, with a higher frequency of mild latency increase of EPs and less amplitude reduction or EP absence. The data from many studies point to a high correlation of the abnormity pattern in the case of the first attack of optic neuritis and/or longitudinal extension transverse myelitis and the next rebound of the disease. Although the multimodal EPs are not a part of formal NMO/NMOSD diagnostic criteria, their role in the diagnostics, monitoring disease course and prognosis of the NMO/NMOSD, is indubitable. Most of the published studies are cross-sectional, opened and retrospective, and therefore new prospective, randomized, and multicentre studies are invited.

Keywords:

neuromyelitis optica – evoked potentials – visual evoked potentials – motor evoked potentials – somatosenzoric evoked potentials – brainstem auditory evoked potentials


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