Pineal Region Expansions

Authors: P. Buchvald;  P. Suchomel;  V. Beneš Iii;  M. Kaiser;  R. Fröhlich
Authors‘ workplace: Neurochirurgické oddělení, Krajská nemocnice Liberec, a. s.
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2013; 76/109(6): 667-678
Category: Minimonography


Quadrigeminal cistern and the surrounding anatomical structures with the pineal gland at their center are usually referred to as pineal region. Due to great histological diversity of this location, the list of possible local expansions is relatively extensive, ranging from benign pineal cysts to highly malignant tumors. Neoplasms of the pineal region represent about one percent of all intracranial tumors and can be divided into three main groups. Germ cell tumors form the largest group, followed by pineal parenchymal tumors. The third group is composed of different types of tumors growing from tissues of the surrounding anatomical structures (gliomas, ependymomas, meningiomas, metastases, dermoid and epidermoid cysts etc.). Optimal treatment and prognosis can only be determined on the basis of histological examination. Central location of the pineal region with relationship to vital neural and vascular structures makes surgery of these lesions very difficult. However, microsurgical techniques have dramatically reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality and aggressive adjuvant therapy of malignant forms have prolonged survival.

Key words:
pineal gland – pineal region tumors – germ cell tumors – pineal parenchymal tumors – surgical approaches – radiotherapy – chemotherapy

The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.

The Editorial Board declares that the manu­script met the ICMJE “uniform requirements” for biomedical papers.


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