A set of pictures with the opposite dif­ficulty of naming

Authors: A. Bartoš 1,2;  M. Hohinová 3
Authors‘ workplace: Neurologická klinika 3. LF UK a FN Královské Vinohrady, Praha 1;  Národní ústav duševního zdraví, Klecany 2;  Katedra psychologie, FF UK, Praha 3
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2018; 81(4): 466-474
Category: Original Paper
doi: 10.14735/amcsnn2018466


We aimed to create a set of pictures unambiguously named by Czech one word and to divide them into two categories accord­­ing to the dif­ficulty of nam­­ing for patients with cognitive impairment.

Patients and methods:
First, a list of words accompanied by black and white drawings was created. These pictures drawn in different ways were repeatedly presented to elderly persons and patients with cognitive impairment dur­­ing five attempts of preliminary research. The result was expres­sed by the percentage of name agreement of the picture name and its expected name. The pictures which did not meet certain criteria were excluded out of an intial set of 173 pictures. The last set of 70 pictures was presented to a sample of 305 elderly people in two forms, paper (n = 135) and electronic form (n = 170). An additional 70 patients with a variety of cognitive disorders, primarily with Alzheimer’s dis­ease, named the same set of pictures in written paper form for comparative purposes with the rest of the sample. They were also examined by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (21 ± 5 points) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) (20 ± 4 points).

The main outcome includes 14 pictures that were dif­ficult to name by patients with cognitive impairment and easily named by elderly people without cognitive deficit – Eskimo, crane, thermometer, totem, mir­ror, cake, stamp, magnify­­ing glas­s, traf­fic light, robot, waterfal­l, airship, submarine and ches­sboard. Pictures with more than 90% agreement of cor­rect nam­­ing in both healthy and cognitively impaired samples were identified as easy to name. They included bar­rel, pencil, moon, glas­ses, comb, key, pram, table, rol­ler, chair and 27 other pictures.

Pictures that were dif­ficult to name will be an important source for creat­­ing new screen­­ing tests and aids for discrimination of cognitively normal elderly individuals from those with cognitive impairment. On the contrary, easy-to-name pictures will be suitable for test­­ing visual memory where the learn­­ing phase will not be af­fected by nam­­ing er­rors.

Key words:
memory – Alzheimer‘s disease – dementia – test – screening – image

The authors declare they have no potentialconflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.

The Editorial Board declares that the manu­ script met the ICMJE “uniform requirements” for biomedical papers.


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