Progressive multiple sclerosis in the light of the latest findings

Authors: D. Šťastná 1;  I. Menkyová 1,2;  D. Horáková 1
Authors‘ workplace: Neurologická klinika a Centrum klinických neurověd 1. LF UK a VFN v Praze 1;  II. neurologická klinika LF UK a UNB, Bratislava, Slovensko 2
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2023; 86(1): 10-17
Category: Review Article


Multiple sclerosis is a serious chronic neurological disease. In pathogenesis, both the inflammatory process and inflammation-triggered neurodegeneration play a role from the beginning. Their ratio is the basis for the clinical phenotype. The latest classification takes this into account and divides MS into relapsing and progressive (primary/secondary), where both phenotypes might be active or inactive. Although neurodegeneration is predominant in progressive forms, an inflammatory component is present in all phenotypes and can be therapeutically influenced. Therefore, it is important to identify progression early and provide adequate therapy. However, the priority remains to influence MS in its early stages to delay the onset of progression and to take a comprehensive approach with attention to a healthy lifestyle and influencing risk factors.


Multiple sclerosis – risk factors – diagnostics – secondary progression – primary progression – progressive multiple sclerosis – disease-modifying drugs – immunomodulatory treatment – immunopathogenesis


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