Dia­gnostics, symp­tomatology and findings in dis­eases and disorders of the autonomic nervous system in neurology


Authors: J. Opavský
Authors‘ workplace: Katedra fyzioterapie, Fakulta tělesné kultury, Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2018; 81(6): 625-644
Category: Minimonography
doi: 10.14735/amcsnn2018625

Overview

Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are more com­mon in neurology practice than previously recognized in dia­gnostic conclusions. Besides the primary involvement of the autonomic nervous system, there are sympathetic or parasympathetic (especial­ly vagal) dysfunctions as­sociated with other dis­eases of the central or peripheral nervous system. The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview of the clinical symp­tomatology of autonomic dysfunctions, the examination methods of the autonomic nervous system, especial­ly those available and applicable in clinical neurology practice, and furthemore, the clinical pictures of generalized and localized autonomic dysfunctions. The most important autonomic examinations focus on the cardiovascular system, as­ses­s­­ing both heart rate and blood pres­sure changes in appropriately selected autonomic tests. The cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests and the heart rate variability as­ses­sment are the most com­monly used dia­gnostic tools. The examination methods of the autonomic regulations in other systems of the human body are described in this paper in a brief overview. The latter part of this article is dedicated to selected dis­eases and clinical symp­tomatology, among generalized (systematic) disorders of the autonomic nervous system, diabetic autonomic polyneuropathy and autonomic polyneuropathies of other causes which are discus­sed in greater detail. This is fol­lowed by an overview of autonomic disturbances and dysfunctions of central origin that may constitute either major or minor symp­toms of neurological dis­eases. The paper further describes clinical features of localized autonomic disturbances. A simple dia­gnostic scheme for basic evaluation of the autonomic functions in clinical neurology practice is proposed at the end of this paper.

Key words:

autonomic nervous system diseases – sympathetic nervous system – parasympathetic nervous system – signs and symptoms – diagnoses and examinations – neurologic examination – diagnostic techniques, neurological – diabetic autonomic neuropathy – heart rate determination – spectrum analysis

The author declare he has no potential con­flicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study

The Editorial Board declares that the manu­script met the ICMJE “uniform requirements” for biomedical papers.


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