Febrile Seizures – Sometimes Less is More

Authors: T. Nečas 1;  H. Ošlejšková 2
Authors‘ workplace: Dětské oddělení, Krajská nemocnice T. Bati, a. s., Zlín 1;  Klinika dětské neurologie LF MU a FN Brno 2
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2017; 80/113(3): 269-275
Category: Review Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.14735/amcsnn2017269


Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in childhood, affecting 2–5% of children. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures in association with a febrile illness occurring in a child aged between 6 months and 5 years in the absence of a central nervous system infection, metabolic imbalance or history of febrile seizures. The view of febrile seizures has changed dramatically in the last few decades. The traditional belief that febrile seizures have bad prognosis has been replaced with a modern one that is based on large epidemiological studies and presented febrile seizures as a disease with excellent prognosis requiring minimum diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of febrile seizures, including controversies in diagnosis, management and progn

Key words:
febrile seizures – epilepsy – electroencephalography – vaccination – benzodiazepines

The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.

The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE “uniform requirements” for biomedical papers.


1. Berg AT, Shin­nar S. Complex febrile seizures. Epilepsia 1996;37(2):126– 33. doi: 10.1111/ j.1528-1157.1996.tb00003.x.

2. Duf­fner PK, Berman PH, Baumann RJ, et al. FebrileSeizures: Guideline for the Neurodia­gnostic Eval-uation of the Child With a Simple Febrile Seizure. Am Acad Pediatr 2011;127(2):389– 94. doi: 10.1542/ peds.20103318.

3. Pavlidou E, Panteliadis C. Prognostic factors for subsequent epilepsy in children with febrile seizures. Epilepsia 2013;54(12):2101– 7. doi: 10.1111/ epi.12429.

4. Nelson KB, El­lenberg JH. Predictors of epilepsy in children who have experienced febrile seizures. N Engl J Med 1976;295(19):1029– 33.

5. Komárek V. Febrilní křeče. In: Ošlejšková H, ed. Epileptické a neepileptické záchvaty v dětství a adolescenci. Brno: ADELA 2009:119– 26.

6. Rektor I, Ošlejšková H. Stručná epileptologie pro praxi. Neurol Prax 2010;11(Suppl 3):5– 44.

7. Nelson KB, El­lenberg JH. Prognosis in children with febrile seizures. Pediatrics 1978;61(5):720– 7.

8. Hesdorf­fer DC, Benn EKT, Bagiel­la E, et al. Distribution of febrile seizure duration and as­sociations with development. Ann Neurol 2011;70(1):93– 100. doi: 10.1002/ ana.22368.

9. Seinfeld S, Shin­nar S, Sun S, et al. Emergency management of febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study. Epilepsia 2014; 55(3):388– 95. doi: 10.1111/ epi.12526.

10. Shin­nar S, Pel­lock JM, Moshé SL, et al. In whom does status epilepticus occur: age-related dif­ferences in children. Epilepsia 1997;38(8):907– 14.

11. Steer­ing Com­mittee on Quality Improvement and Management, Subcom­mittee on Febrile Seizures. Febrile Seizures: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Long-term Management of the Child With Simple Febrile Seizures. Pediatrics 2008;121(6):1281– 6. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2008-0939.

12. Sugai K. Cur­rent management of febrile seizures in Japan: an overview. Brain Dev 2010;32(1):64– 70. doi: 10.1016/ j.braindev.2009.09.019.

13. Stanhope JM, Brody J, Brink E, et al. Convulsions among the Chamor­ro people of Guam, Mariana islands. II. Febrile convulsions. Am J Epidemiol 1972;95(3):299– 304.

14. Sfaihi L, Maaloul I, Kmiha S, et al. Febrile seizures: an epidemiological and outcome study of 482 cases. ChildsNerv Syst 2012;28(10):1779– 84.

15. Berg AT, Shin­nar S, Hauser WA, et al. A prospective study of recur­rent febrile seizures. N Engl J Med 1992;327(16):1122– 7.

16. Berg AT. Predictors of Recur­rent Febrile Seizures. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151(4):371– 8.

17. Nevšímalová S. Genetika febrilních křečí. In: Vajnorský J, Nevšímalová S, Dolanský J, eds. Febrilní křeče u dětí. Praha: Avicenum 1984:57– 70.

18. Van Esch A, Steyerberg EW, Van Duijn CM, et al. Prediction of febrile seizures in siblings: a practical ap­proach. Eur J Pediatr 1998;157(4):340– 4.

19. An­negers JF, Hauser WA, Elveback LR, et al. The risk of epilepsy fol­low­ing febrile convulsions. Neurology 1979;29(3):297– 303.

20. Frantzen E, Len­nox-Buchthal M, Nygaard A, et al. A genetic study of febrile convulsions. Neurology 1970;20(9):909– 17.

21. Of­fringa M, Bos­suyt PMM, Lubsen J, et al. Risk factors for seizure recur­rence in children with febrile seizures: A pooled analysis of individual patient data from five studies. J Pediatr 1994;124(4):574– 84.

22. Seinfeld SA, Pel­lock JM, Kjeldsen MJ, et al. Epilepsy After Febrile Seizures: Twins Suggest Genetic Influence. Pediatr Neurol 2016;55:14– 6. doi: 10.1016/ j.pediatrneurol.2015.10.008.

23. Saghazadeh A, Mastrangelo M, Rezaei N. Genetic background of febrile seizures. Rev Neurosci 2014;25(1):129– 61. doi: 10.1515/ revneuro-2013-0053.

24. Holm IA, Poduri A, Crandall L, et al. Inheritance of febrile seizures in sudden unexplained death in toddlers. Pediatr Neurol 2012;46(4):235– 9. doi: 10.1016/ j.pediatrneurol.2012.02.007.

25. Camfield P, Camfield C, Schef­fer IE, et al.Febrile Seizures and Genetic Epilepsy With Febrile Seizures Plus (Gefs). In: Bureau M, Genton P, Dravet Ch, eds. Epileptic Syndromes in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence. London: John Libbey Eurotext Itd 2012:175– 87.

26. Shin­nar S, Glauser T, Baram T, et al. Febrile Seizures. J Child Neurol 2002;17(Suppl 1):S44– 52.

27. Shibasaki K, Suzuki M, Mizuno A, et al. Ef­fects of body temperature on neural activity in the hippocampus: regulation of rest­ing membrane potentials by transient receptor potential vanil­loid 4. J Neurosci 2007;27(7):1566– 75.

28. Moser E, Mathiesen I, Andersen P. As­sociation between brain temperature and dentate field potentials in explor­ing and swim­m­ing rats. Science 1993;259(5099): 1324– 6.

29. Vezzani A, Granata T. Brain inflam­mation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence. Epilepsia 2005;46(11):1724– 43.

30. Schuchmann S, Schmitz D, Rivera C, et al. Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Nat Med 2006;12(7):817– 23. doi: 10.1038/ nm1422.

31. Mil­lichap JG, Mil­lichap JJ. Role of viral infections in the etiology of febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol 2006;35:165– 72. doi: 10.1016/ j.pediatrneurol.2006.06.004.

32. Huang CC, Wang ST, Chang YC, et al. Risk factors for a first febrile convulsion in children: a population study in southern Taiwan. Epilepsia 1999;40(6):719– 25.

33. Bethune P. Which child will have a febrile seizure? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1993;147:35.

34. Hackett R, Hackett L, Bhakta P. Febrile seizures in a south Indian district: incidence and as­sociations. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39(6):380– 4.

35. Berg AT, Shin­nar S, Shapiro ED, et al. Risk factors for a first febrile seizure: a matched case-control study. Epilepsia 1995;36(4):334– 41.

36. Cas­sano PA, Koepsell TD, Farwell JR. Risk of febrile seizures in childhood in relation to prenatal maternal cigarette smok­ing and alcohol intake. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:462– 73.

37. Rantala H, Uhari M, Hietala J. Factors trigger­ing the first febrile seizure. Acta Paediatr 1995;84(4):407– 10.

38. Forsgren L, Sidenvall R, Blomquist H, et al. An incident case-referent study of febrile convulsions in children: genetical and social aspects. Neuropediatrics 1990;21(3):153– 9.

39. Berg AT. Are febrile seizures provoked by a rapid rise in temperature? Am J Dis Child 1993;147(10):1101– 3.

40. Tu YF, Wang LW, Wang ST, et al. Postnatal Steroids and Febrile Seizure Susceptibility in Preterm Children. Pediatrics 2016;137(4): pii: e20153404. doi: 10.1542/ peds. 2015-3404.

41. Her­rgård EA, Karvonen M, Luoma L, et al. Increased number of febrile seizures in children born very preterm: relation of neonatal, febrile and epileptic seizures and neurological dysfunction to seizure outcome at 16 years of age. Seizure 2006;15(8):590– 7. doi: 10.1016/ j.seizure.2006.08.004.

42. An­negers JF, Blakley SA, Al­len Hauser W, et al. Recur­rence of febrile convulsions in a population-based cohort. Epilepsy Res 1990;5(3):209– 16.

43. Verity CM, Butler NR, Gold­ing J. Febrile convulsions in a national cohort fol­lowed up from birth. I –  Prevalence and recur­rence in the first five years of life. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;290(6478):1307– 10.

44. Berg AT, Shin­nar S, Hauser WA, et al. Predictors of recur­rent febrile seizures: a metaanalytic review. J Pediatr 1990;116(3):329– 37.

45. Of­fringa M, Derksen-Lubsen G, Bos­suyt PM, et al. Seizure recur­rence after a first febrile seizure: a multivariate approach. Dev Med Child Neurol 1992;34(1):15– 24.

46. Berg AT, Shin­nar S. Unprovoked seizures in children with febrile seizures: short-term outcome. Neurology 1996;47(2):562– 8.

47. Verity CM, Gold­ing J. Risk of epilepsy after febrile convulsions: a national cohort study. BMJ 1991;303(6814):1373– 6.

48. An­negers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, et al. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1987;316:493– 8.

49. Van der Berg BJ, Yerushalmy J. Studies on convulsive disorders in young children. I. Incidence of febrile and nonfebrile convulsions by age and other factors. Pediatr Res 1969;3(4):298– 304.

50. Vestergaard M, Pedersen CB, Sidenius P, et al. The long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures in susceptible subgroups. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165(8):911– 8. doi: 10.1093/ aje/ kwk086.

51. French JA. Febrile seizures: pos­sible outcomes. Neurology 2012;79(9):e80– 2. doi: 10.1212/ WNL.0b013e 31826aa902.

52. Berg AT, Shin­nar S, Levy SR, et al. Childhood-onset epilepsy with and without preced­ing febrile seizures. Neurology 1999;53:1742– 8.

53. Sofijanov N, Sadikario A, Dukovski M, et al. Febrile convulsions and later development of epilepsy. Am J Dis Child 1983;137(2):123– 6.

54. Camfield P, Camfield C, Gordon K, et al. What types of epilepsy are preceded by febrile seizures? A population-based study of children. Dev Med Child Neurol 1994;36(10):887– 92.

55. Shin­nar S, Moshé SL. Age specificity of seizure expres­sion in genetic epilepsies. Epilepsy Res Suppl 1991;4:69– 85.

56. Dravet C. The core Dravet syndrome phenotype. Epilepsia 2011;52 (Suppl 2):3– 9. doi: 10.1111/ j.1528-1167.2011.02994.x.

57. Thoman JE, Duf­fner PK, Shucard JL. Do serum sodium levels predict febrile seizure recur­rence within 24 hours? Pediatr Neurol 2004;31(5):342– 4. doi: 10.1016/ j.pediatrneurol.2004.05.013.

58. Maksikharin A, Prom­malikit O. Serum sodium levels do not predict recur­rence of febrile seizures within 24 hours. Paediatr Int Child Health 2015;35(1):44– 6. doi: 10.1179/ 2046905514Y.0000000159.

59. K­ing D, K­ing A. Question 2: Should children who have a febrile seizure be screened for iron deficiency? Arch Dis Child 2014;99(10):960– 4. doi: 10.1136/ archdischild-2014-306689.

60. Subcom­mittee on Febrile Seizures. American Academy of Pediatrics. Neurodia­gnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics 2011;127(2):389– 94. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2010-3318.

61. Bast T, Carmant L. Febrile and other occasional seizures. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology –  Pediatric Neurology Part I. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 2013:477– 91.

62. Green SM, Rothrock SG, Clem KJ, et al. Can seizures be the sole manifestation of meningitis in febrile children? Pediatrics 1993;92(4):527– 34.

63. Car­roll W, Brookfield D. Lumbar puncture fol­low­ing febrile convulsion. Arch Dis Child 2002;87(3):238– 40.

64. Mil­lichap JJ, Mil­lichap GJ. Clinical features and evaluation of febrile seizures. In: Post TW, Rutgeerts P, Grover S, eds. UpToDate. 2016. [acces­sed 2017 Apr 24]. Available from URL: http:/ / www.uptodate.com/ contents/ clinical-features-and-evaluation-of-febrile-seizures.

65. Kimia A, Ben-Joseph EP, Rudloe T, et al. Yield of lumbar puncture among children who present with their first complex febrile seizure. Pediatrics 2010;126(1):62– 9. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2009-2741.

66. Kimia AA, Capraro AJ, Hum­mel D, et al. Utility of lumbar puncture for first simple febrile seizure among children 6 to 18 months of age. Pediatrics 2009;123(1): 6– 12. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2007-3424.

67. Seltz LB, Cohen E, Weinstein M. Risk of bacterial or herpes simplex virus meningitis/ encephalitis in childrenwith complex febrile seizures. Pediatr Emerg Care 2009;25(8):494– 7. doi: 10.1097/ PEC.0b013e3181b0a095.

68. Watemberg N, Sarouk I, Fainmes­ser P. Acute meningitis among infants and toddlers with febrile seizures: time for a reappraisal of the value of a lumbar puncture. Isr Med As­soc J 2012;14(9):547– 9.

69. Fletcher EM, Sharieff G. Neces­sity of lumbar puncture in patients present­ing with new onset complex febrile seizures. West J Emerg Med 2013;14(3):206– 11. doi: 10.5811/ westjem.2012.8.12872.

70. Kanemura H, Mizorogi S, Aoyagi K, et al. EEG characteristics predict subsequent epilepsy in children with febrile seizure. Brain Dev 2012;34(4):302– 7. doi: 10.1016/ j.braindev.2011.07.007.

71. Sofijanov N, Emoto S, Kuturec M, et al. Febrile seizures: clinical characteristics and initial EEG. Epilepsia 1992;33(1):52– 7.

72. Febrile Seizures. NIH Consens. Statement 1980 May 19– 21. [online]. Available from URL: https:/ / consensus.nih.gov/ 1980/ 1980FebrileSeizures023html.htm.

73. Hofert SM, Burke MG. Noth­ing is simple about a complex febrile seizure: look­ing beyond fever as a cause for seizures in children. Hosp Pediatr 2014;4(3):181– 7. doi: 10.1542/ hpeds.2013-0098.

74. Shah PB, James S, Elayaraja S. EEG for children with complex febrile seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;24(1):CD009196. doi: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD009196.pub2.

75. Gradisnik P, Zagradisnik B, Palfy M, et al. Predictive value of paroxysmal EEG abnormalities for future epilepsy in focal febrile seizures. Brain Dev 2015(37(9):868– 73. doi: 10.1016/ j.braindev.2015.02.005.

76. Kim H, Byun SH, Kim JS, et al. Clinical and EEG risk factors for subsequent epilepsy in patients with complex febrile seizures. Epilepsy Res 2013;105(1– 2):158– 63. doi: 10.1016/ j.eplepsyres.2013.02.006.

77. Harini C, Nagarajan E, Kimia AA, et al. Utility of initial EEG in first complex febrile seizure. Epilepsy Behav 2015;52(A):200– 4. doi: 10.1016/ j.yebeh.2015.09.003.

78. Teng D. Risk of intracranial pathologic conditions requir­ing emergency intervention after a first complex febrile seizure episode among children. Pediatrics 2006;117(2):304– 8. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2005-0759.

79. Kimia AA, Ben-Joseph E, Prabhu S, et al. Yield of emergent neuroimag­ing among children present­ing with a first complex febrile seizure. Pediatr Emerg Care 2012;28(4):316– 21. doi: 10.1097/ PEC.0b013e31824d8b0b.

80. Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 2004;89(8):751– 6. doi: 10.1136/ adc.2003.028449.

81. Kimia AA, Bachur RG, Tor­res A, et al. Febrile seizures: emergency medicine perspective. Curr Opin Pediatr 2015;27(3):292– 7. doi: 10.1097/ MOP.0000000000000220.

82. Vajnorský J. Laboratorní vyšetření. In: Vajnorský J, Nevšímalová S, Dolanský J, eds. Febrilní křeče u dětí. Praha: Avicenum 1984:74– 6.

83. Sorensen PN. Value of routine ophthalmologic examination in children with febrile convulsions. Ugeskr Laeger 1977;139(36):2118– 9.

84. National Institute for Clinical Excel­lence. Febrile seizure. [online] http:/ / cks.nice.org.uk/ febrile-seizure.

85. Capovil­la G, Mastrangelo M, Romeo A, et al. Recom­mendations for the management of ‘febrile seizures’ Ad hoc Task Force of LICE Guidelines Com­mis­sion. Epilepsia 2009;50(Suppl 1):2– 6. doi: 10.1111/ j.1528-1167.2008.01963.x.

86. Mastrangelo M, Midul­la F, Moretti C. Actual insights into the clinical management of febrile seizures. Eur J Pediatr 2014;173(8):977– 82. doi: 10.1007/ s00431-014-2269-7.

87. Baumann RJ, Duf­fner PK. Treatment of children with simple febrile seizures: the AAP practice parameter. Pediatr Neurol 2000;23(1):11– 7.

88. Knudsen FU. Febrile seizures: treatment and prognosis. Epilepsia 2000;41(1):2– 9.

89. Chamberlain JM, Okada P, Holsti M, et al. Lorazepam vs diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014;311(16):1652– 60. doi: 10.1001/ jama.2014.2625.

90. Anderson M. Buccal midazolam for pediatric convulsive seizures: Ef­ficacy, safety, and patient acceptability. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013;7:27– 34. doi: 10.2147/ PPA.S39233.

91. Holsti M, Dudley N, Schunk J, et al. Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam for the home treatment of acute seizures in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010;164(8):747– 53. doi: 10.1001/ archpediatrics.2010.130.

92. McMul­lan J, Sas­son C, Pancioli A, et al. Midazolam versus diazepam for the treatment of status epilepticus in children and young adults: a meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med 2010;17(6):575– 82. doi: 10.1111/ j.1553-2712.2010.00751.x.

93. Rosenbloom E, Finkelstein Y, Adams-Webber T, et al. Do antipyretics prevent the recur­rence of febrile seizures in children? A systematic review of randomized control­led trials and meta-analysis. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2013;17(6):585– 8. doi: 10.1016/ j.ejpn.2013.04.008.

94. Sul­livan JE, Far­rar HC. Fever and antipyretic use in children. Pediatrics 2011;127(3):580– 7. doi: 10.1542/ peds.2010-3852.

95. Kohl KS, Marcy SM, Blum M, et al. Fever after Im­munization: Cur­rent Concepts and Improved Future Scientific Understanding. Clin Infect Dis 2004;39(3):389– 94.

96. Principi N, Esposito S. Vaccines and febrile seizures. Expert Rev Vaccines 2013;12(8):885– 92. doi: 10.1586/ 14760584.2013.814781.

97. Of­fringa M, Newton R. Prophylactic drug man­agement for febrile seizures in children (Review). Evid Based Child Health 2013;8(4):1376– 485. doi: 10.1002/ ebch.1921.

98. Rosman NP, Colton T, Labazzo J, et al. A control­led trial of diazepam administered dur­ing febrile il­lnes­ses to prevent recur­rence of febrile seizures. N Engl J Med 1993;329(2):79– 84.

99. Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Gordon K, et al. Prevention of recur­rent febrile seizures. J Pediatr 1995;126(6):929– 30.

100. World Health Organization. Pharmacologic Interventions for prophylaxis of recur­rence of febrile seizures. 2015 Paediatr. Emerg. Triage, As­ses­s. Treat. Guidel. 2015. [online]. Available from URL: http:/ / www.who.int/ mental_health/ mhgap/ evidence/ epilepsy/ q3/ en/ .

101. Borggräfe I, Heinen F, Gerstl L. Fieberkrämpfe. Monats­schrift Kinderheilkd 2013;161:953– 62.

102. Camfield P, Camfield C. Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases? Epileptic Disord 2014;16:S84– 8. doi: 10.1684/ epd.2014.0683.

103. Pavlidou E, Tzitiridou M, Panteliadis C. Ef­fectiveness of intermittent diazepam prophylaxis in febrile seizures: long-term prospective control­led study. J Child Neurol 2006;21(12):1036– 40.

104. Verity CM, Greenwood R, Gold­ing J. Long-term intel­lectual and behavioral outcomes of children with febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1998;338(24):1723– 8.

105. Brown NJ, Berkovic SF, Schef­fer IE. Vaccination, seizures and ‘vaccine damage’. Curr Opin Neurol 2007;20(2):181– 7.

106. Macartney KK, Gidd­ing HF, Trinh L, et al. Febrile seizures fol­low­ing measles and varicel­la vaccines in young children in Australia. Vaccine 2015;33(11):1412– 7. doi: 10.1016/ j.vaccine.2014.10.071.

107. Schef­fer IE. Vaccination Triggers, Rather Than Causes, Seizures. Epilepsy Curr 2015;15(6):335– 7. doi: 10.5698/ 1535-7511-15.6.335.

108. Sisodiya S. Feverish prospects for seizure genetics. Nat Genet 2014;46(12):1255– 6. doi: 10.1038/ ng.3150.

109. Pruna D, Balestri P, Zamponi N, et al. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines. Epilepsia 2013;54(Suppl 7):13– 22. doi: 10.1111/ epi.12306.

110. Feemster KA. Delay in measles vaccination is as­sociated with increased risk of post-vaccination seizures. J Pediatr 2014;164(3):674. doi: 10.1016/ j.jpeds.2013.12.021.

111. Khair AM, Elmagrabi D. Febrile seizures and febrile seizure syndromes: an updated overview of old and cur­rent knowledge. Neurol Res Int 2015;2015:849341. doi: 10.1155/ 2015/ 849341.

112. Nordli DR, Moshé SL, Shin­nar S, et al. Acute EEG findings in children with febrile status epilepticus: results of the FEBSTAT study. Neurology 2012;79(22):2180– 6. doi: 10.1212/ WNL.0b013e3182759766.

113. Frank LM, Shin­nar S, Hesdorf­fer DC, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid findings in children with fever-as­sociated status epilepticus: results of the consequences of prolonged febrile seizures (FEBSTAT) study. J Pediatr 2012;161(6):1169– 71. doi: 10.1016/ j.jpeds.2012.08.008.

114. Lewis DV, Shin­nar S, Hesdorf­fer DC, et al. Hip­pocampal sclerosis after febrile status epilepticus: The FEBSTAT study. Ann Neurol 2014;75(2):178– 85. doi: 10.1002/ ana.24081.

115. Chan S, Bel­lo JA, Shin­nar S, et al. HippocampalMalrotation Is As­sociated With Prolonged FebrileSeizures: Results of the FEBSTAT Study. AJR Am J Roent­-genol 2015;205(5):1068– 74. doi: 10.2214/ AJR.14.13330.

116. Hartmann C, von Spiczak S, Suls A, et al. Investigat­ing the genetic basis of fever-as­sociated syndromic epilepsies us­ing copy number variation analysis. Epilepsia 2015;56(3):e26– 32. doi: 10.1111/ epi.12920.

117. Komárek V, Hadač J. Doporučení postupy pro praktické lékaře –  Febrilní křeče 2002. [online]. Dostupné z URL: http:/ / www.cls.cz/ dokumenty2/ os/ t219.rtf.

Paediatric neurology Neurosurgery Neurology

Article was published in

Czech and Slovak Neurology and Neurosurgery

Issue 3

2017 Issue 3

Most read in this issue
Forgotten password

Enter the email address that you registered with. We will send you instructions on how to set a new password.


Don‘t have an account?  Create new account