Multiple sclerosis and the role of gut microbiota during a harmful inflammatory response


Authors: J. Krejsek
Authors‘ workplace: Ústav klinické imunologie a alergologie LF UK a FN Hradec Králové
Published in: Cesk Slov Neurol N 2019; 82(2): 0
Category: Review Article
doi: 10.14735/amcsnn2019141

Overview

Majority of body compartments, especial­ly the gut, skin, respiratory and genitourinary tracts, is normal­ly inhabited by highly complex microbial populations designated as microbio­ta. Gut microbio­ta is the best studied so far. Colonisation patterns of gut microbio­ta which are acquired early dur­­ing ontogeny, especially during the infant’s age, are normal­ly maintained for life. Both mucosal and systemic im­munity, which are highly individualized, are determined by physiological gut microbio­ta. Dysbio­sis which is disturbed gut microbio­ta is fol­lowed by extensive negative impacts on human physiology. Recently, substantial links between gut microbio­ta and CNS were found. Whereas physiological colonisation patterns are support­­ing optimal development of brain structures by provid­­ing them with some energy and homeostatic regulations on inflammatory processes, dysbio­tic microbio­ta results in abnormal functional polarisation of T cell subsets. The result is the initiation and the progres­sion of a harmful inflam­matory response which might be a part of the pathophysiological proces­ses leading to the development of MS. Gut microbio­ta could be positively modulated via optimal nutrition rich in prebio­tic oligosaccharides, probio­tics, and postbio­tics. The optimalisation of nutrition can influence harmful inflam­mation in MS patients as evidenced in some animal models. Clinical trials to evaluate the ef­ficacy of fecal microbio­ta transplantation in MS patients can be expected in the near future.

The author declares he has no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.

The Editorial Board declares that the manu­script met the ICMJE “uniform requirements” for biomedical papers.

Keywords:

multiple sclerosis – gut microbiota – communication – harmful inflammation – modulation 


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Paediatric neurology Neurosurgery Neurology

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